The defendants - U.S., Canadian and U.K. individuals and corporations - were found by the court to have violated the Digital Millenium Copyright Act (the 'DMCA"?) by trafficking mod chips and the HDLoader software application. Both the HDLoader software and mod chips violate the DMCA by allowing users to circumvent the copyright protection technology built into video game consoles. HDLoader allows users to copy video games to a console's hard drive where they can be transferred to a PC and distributed on the web. Mod chips allow users to use a console to play illegally obtained games.